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Determination of the heating value of fuel oil and of the calorific value of olive oil

Principle

The heat of reaction generated during the complete combustion of 1000 g of solid or liquid fuel is known as the calorific value H. In the case of complete combustion of nutritional fats, the gross calorific value can also be determined. In order to ensure complete combustion, ...

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Детали

Продукт No: P3021701

Solubility diagram of two partially miscible liquids

Principle

A number of different mixtures of phenol and water are prepared and heated until complete miscibility is achieved. As the mixtures cool, two-phase systems form at certain temperatures which are recognisable by the appearance of turbidity. Plotting separation temperatures against ...

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Детали

Продукт No: P3030501

Miscibility gap in a ternary system



Principle

A number of completely miscible two component mixtures are prepared to investigate the three component acetic acid / chloroform / water system. These mixtures are titrated with the third component until a two phase system is formed which causes turbidity. The phase ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3030601

Solubility product with Cobra4

Principle

The solubility of poorly soluble salts is expressed as the solubility product, i.e. the product of the concentration of cations and anions in the solution which are in equilibrium with the solid salt. These concentrations can be determined via conductivity ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3030862

Dissociation equilibrium with Cobra4

Principle

Carboxylic acids are potential electrolytes which exist in a weakly dissociated condition in aqueous solutions. The location of the dissociation equilibrium is quantitatively described by the Ka or pKa value which can be determined with ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3030960

Complex formation equilibrium / equilibrium constant

Principle

Many metals, in particular transition elements, can form complexes with charged or neutral ligands. Complex formation reactions are equilibrium reactions. The stability of these complexes is described by the complex formation constant.

Benefits

  • Stable and safe ...
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Детали

Продукт No: P3031001

Dissociation constants

Principle

The coloured indicator thymol blue is a weak acid that is partially dissociated in aqueous solution, whereby  non-ionized and ionized forms show absorption maximums at different wavelengths in the visible range. Photometric measurements in the visible spectral range can ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3031101

Steam distillation

Principle

An elegant and simple apparatus for carrying out water vapour distillations: the advantage of this arrangement is that it eliminates the need for a separate vapour generator, making it possible to operate with a single heat source (other set-ups require two). The vapour is ...

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Детали

Продукт No: P3031251

Rectification - the number of theoretical trays in a distillation column

Principle

The separation power of a rectification (fractionating) column can be determined using an appropriate binary mixture whose equilibrium composition is measured in the distillation flask and in the domed glass head of the distillation apparatus. The number of theoretical trays can ...

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Детали

Продукт No: P3031501

Sublimation and solubility of iodine

Principle

Iodine, whose melting point is at 113.5 °C, evaporates clearly below this temperature. It passes from the solid state directly to the gaseous state. This process is known as sublimation.

When iodine vapour cools down, solid crystals form, again without a liquid transitional ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3031900

Adsorption isotherms

Principle

In general, the term adsorption is used to describe the attachment of gases or dissolved substances to the surface of a solid or liquid. At constant temperature, the quantity of adsorbed substances is a function of the type of system investigated and the partial pressure and / ...

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Детали

Продукт No: P3040801

Reaction rate and activation energy of the acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate

Principle

In acid solution, ethyl acetate is hydrolysed to equivalent quantities of ethanol and acetic acid according to a pseudo-first order rate law. The alkalimetric determination of the acetic acid formed enables conclusions to be drawn on the temporal concentration of ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3050201

Kinetics of the inversion of saccharose

Principle

The inversion reaction of saccharose, which is catalysed by protons, produces invert sugar, which is a mixture of glucose and fructose. The reaction is accompanied by a change in the optical rotation of the system. Glucose rotates the polarisation plane of linearly polarised ...

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Детали

Продукт No: P3050301

Conductivity of strong and weak electrolytes with Cobra4

Principle

It is possible to differentiate between strong and weak electrolytes by measuring their electrical conductance. Strong electrolytes follow Kohlrausch's law, whereas weak electrolytes are described by Ostwald's dilution law. The examination of the concentration dependence of the ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3060660

Conductivity titration with Cobra4

Principle

The electric conductivity of aqueous electrolyte solutions is determined by the type and number of charge carriers at constant temperature. Characteristic changes in conductivity are connected with changes in the ionic composition of reacting systems. These can be used in the ...

 
Детали

Продукт No: P3060760

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